Why did the Federal Reserve start paying interest on reserve balances held on deposit at the Fed? Does the Fed pay interest on required reserves, excess reserves, or both? What interest rate does the Fed pay?
For the scope of this paper, development refers to economic growth that leads to increased standard of living.
The latter term itself is problematic, depending on whether it is measured simply in economic terms, like Gross National Product GNPor if it includes social and health measures, like education and life expectancy, which one finds in the Human Development Index HDI. One assumes that social workers will not be satisfied with an end-point at econometrics, since human welfare depends on much more than the accumulation of wealth.
Thus the hazards of international studies and its interdisciplinary nature—we obtain both the strengths, as well as the weaknesses of narrowly focused fields.
Intuitively there is a strong relationship between wealth and quality of life. Especially in capitalist states, where most citizens consider wealth to be linearly correlated quality of life--or at least the capacity to consume is equated with happiness Baudrillard, Empirically, data supports these presumptions, as measured by International econ notes indices: Given these relationships, it is not unreasonable for the social worker to factor economic development into strategies for intervention at all levels macro, mezzo, and microif not even as a core factor.
Cox and Pawar highlight the importance of economic issues for social workers in dedicating a significant portion of their text to poverty and development.
Intervention at these levels, as described by Cox and Pawar, can be imposed by agents external to the state, such as structural adjustment programs of the IMF or World Bank, they can be controlled by the state, such as specific government policies and structures, and finally, macro-level development can be externally assisted, in the form of foreign aid and investment.
Local level development would refer to investment into small community projects, whether a small business, a health clinic, or a school, for example.
While the latter was initially described as a model of reducing poverty, the results are frequently in the opposite direction. Regardless of causation of poverty, Ferguson believes that social worker intervention can come at three levels, all related to increasing various forms of capital—human, financial and social.
While the social worker understands that none of these three can become the sole site of intervention in hopes that it will automatically produce the others, economic theories of development focus on creating growth of financial capital with the belief that it will catalyze, and lay the foundation for the other two although recent economic models, as will be discussed, recognize coordination of all three will probably produce the strongest benefits.
At this time the UNDP encouraged technical support to low-income countries to further facilitate growth after it was realized that economic contribution alone was not sufficient for human-capital impoverished communities to grow.
International organizations began seeing the north-south economic divide, as well as becoming concerned about long-term impacts of capitalism on the environment. The Bretton Woods institutions expanded their efforts to bottom-up loans, rather than simply state-focused loans.
The third state was a revival of classic Smith, as envisioned through Hayek. The Reagan-Thatcher decade of the s was characterized by the beginning of the neoliberal hegemony, where the pendulum swung back to privatization, deregulation and liberalization of trade opening global markets.
At this point the UN Secretary General, Boutros-Gali, asserted that development was a fundamental human right and united the triadic concepts of development, peace, and human security. The Millennium Development Goals evolved into an internationally approved UN roadmap for achieving these three goals.
A more specific review is in order of these eras of development theory.International Trade Theory and Policy Analysis - Table of Contents. Below is the main table of contents for the international trade theory and policy grupobittia.com hyperlink connects to a main chapter page which includes links to the chapter topics, problem sets, and related internet resources.
Plotting nominal dollar value of inward FDI understates the collapse in inflows. Here is the ratio to GDP, and — considering how FDI covaries with the stock market’s level — the real S&P (As I recall, working on this topic during the grupobittia.com boom, the dollar’s strength was the other important factor — but that hasn’t changed much over the last three years.).
Dr. Econ Why did the Federal Reserve start paying interest on reserve balances held on deposit at the Fed? Does the Fed pay interest on required reserves, excess .
Section Resource Market. Factors of Production. We now turn our attention to the demand and supply of resources also called inputs or factors.
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